The amounts of sexual and asexual reproduction differ within some species relying on geographic location and environmental factors. At HQB, the flowering frequencies were greatest in July during 2018 (37.29% ± 13.58% at H1 and 57.45% ± 10.55% at H2) and 2019 (29.62% ± 19.47% at H1 and 24.26% ± 9.14% at H2). The sediment of the bay is mainly sandy and two seagrass species (Z. marina and Z. japonica) colonize the southeastern corner of this bay (Xu S. et al., 2018). Therefore, the disappearance of seeds in HQB may be to the result of seed predation and dispersal. The standing stock, growth and shoot production of Zostera capricorni Aschers in Botany Bay, New South Wales, Australia. Perennial eelgrass populations reproduce sexually and propagate clonally. With a growing open access offering, Wiley is committed to the widest possible dissemination of and access to the content we publish and supports all sustainable models of access. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0905620106, Williams, S. L. (1990). Mar. Here, we studied the reproductive strategies of two different geographic populations of Z. japonica in northern China, Swan Lake (SLL) and Huiquan Bay (HQB). Therefore, the maximum flowering frequency at S2 was greater than those at other sites [F(3, 24) = 4.003, p < 0.05; Table 2]. Surface pollination. doi: 10.1007/s12562-009-0123-z, Ackerman, J. D. (2006). “Sexual reproduction of seagrasses: pollination in the marine context,” in Seagrasses: Biology, Ecology, and Conservation, eds A. W. D. Larkum, R. J. Orth, and C. M. Duarte (Dordrecht: Springer), 89–109. J. Mar. Evolutionary Ecology 9: 139-153.. 1997. Join now. (2004). (2020) observed that the flowering duration of Z. marina in the colder region (5–7.5 months) was longer than in the warmer region (3.5 months). (2013). The ratio of sediment seed banks to potential seed production was less than 10% at all four sites, and no stable sediment seed banks were found at HQB. The seasonal changes in total shoot density and biomass were small in HQB. These data indicated that the allocation to sexual reproduction was greater at SLL. J. Exp. We compared the dry weights, wet weights, and moisture contents of Z. japonica seeds at H2 and S1, and there were no significant differences (unpublished data). Values are mean ± SD (N = 7 cores per site). Join now. Three sediment cores (diameter = 10.5 cm and depth = 12 cm) were collected at each site for the determination of the grain size distribution using a laser diffraction analysis (Short and Coles, 2001). Aquat. (1994). As important habitat-formers, seagrasses are the basis of one of the most productive and widespread coastal ecosystems worldwide (Costanza et al., 1997; Duffy, 2006; York et al., 2015). Seasonal changes in the number of Zostera japonica spathes per reproductive shoot (A), and the number of seed spathes per reproductive shoot (B) at the four study sites from June 2018 to December 2019. Figure 10. doi: 10.1071/mf9941337. (1974). : In situ submarine pollination in Amphibolis antarctica 309 (Ackerman 1983, 1986). Winter was relatively colder at SLL, and ice formed on the water surface on the coldest days. (2017) showed that sexual reproductive effort in Z. japonica tends to be enhanced under disturbed (due to calm harvesting) and inundated environmental conditions for population persistence. However, we found hardly any seed coat in HQB, which indicates that seeds had disappeared. Bot. (2020a). Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 154. 120, 178–184. It has regular semidiurnal tides (tidal range = 4.8 m). A unique meadow of the marine angiosperm Zostera japonica, covering a large area in the turbid intertidal Yellow River Delta, China. Zostera japonica study sites in Swan Lake (SLL) and Huiquan Bay (HQB). 47, 275–281. (1999). (Zipperle et al., 2011). All Rights Reserved. Mar. Conserv. Qin et al. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.09.054, Zhang, X. M., Zhou, Y., Liu, P., Wang, F., Liu, B. J., Liu, X. J., et al. 57, 2635–2638. 365, 3101–3112. Their fate is still unknown. Values are mean ± SD (N = 7 cores per site). Biol. Population genetics of hydrophilous angiosperms. The recovery of gaps within seagrass meadows solely by asexual reproduction may be common. Pollut. Mar. 590, 79–93. (2012). The maximum reproductive shoot density at SLL was greater than at HQB [F(3, 24) = 10.123, p < 0.05; Figure 5A and Table 2]. Vegetative morphology and meristem dependence - the foundation of productivity in seagrasses. seagrass meadow, Queensland Australia. Access supplemental materials and multimedia. Flowering traits of Zostera japonica at the four study sites from June 2018 to December 2019. PubMed:Pollination in the marine realm: microsatellites reveal high outcrossing rates and multiple paternity in eelgrass Zostera marina. XW was employed by the company Mashan Group Co., Ltd. Similar phenomena have been reported previously. In conclusion, we showed that SLL and HQB populations adapted to their habitats and maintained different reproductive strategies. Aust. Ecol. The sediments at all the sites were mainly composed of sand (0.063–2.0 mm), whereas the proportion of silt (0.039–0.063 mm) at S2 (21.55 ± 1.60%) was greater than at the other sites. Fish. (2011). (2014). The maximum seed density in sediment at S2 (2954.65 ± 2549.72 seeds ⋅ m–2) was higher than those at other sites [Chi-square(3) = 18.049, p < 0.05; Figure 9B and Table 3]. This research was supported by the National Science & Technology Basic Work Program (2015FY110600), the National Key R&D Program of China (2019YFD0901301), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. Human activities such as dredging and trawling damage eelgrass meadows; practices used in scallop and 48, 1337–1344. Pollut. The allocation to sexual reproduction was lower than at SLL, and no seedlings were observed at HQB during our study. Sci. Values are mean ± SD (N = 7 cores per site). The maximum seedling density and frequency varied significantly among the four study sites [Chi-square(3) = 17.709, p < 0.05; Chi-square(3) = 13.478, p < 0.05, respectively; Figure 10]. Zostera marina L. Sp. The genome of the seagrass Zostera marina reveals angiosperm adaptation to the sea. Plant Sci. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.05.320, Zhang, X. M., Zhou, Y., Adams, M. P., Wang, F., Xu, S. C., Wang, P. M., et al. Flow chamber observations of the filamentous pollen of Zostera marina L. (Potamogetonales) revealed that pollen rotated and moved toward inflorescences where they were captured by stigmas. Clonality in aquatic environments may be a response to the uncertainty of pollination, or a means to exploit stable environments . Our core businesses produce scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly journals, reference works, books, database services, and advertising; professional books, subscription products, certification and training services and online applications; and education content and services including integrated online teaching and learning resources for undergraduate and graduate students and lifelong learners. doi: 10.1016/s0022-0981(98)00158-0, Rasheed, M. A. Oecologia 182, 595–609. An ECO-PARSB sensor (Sea-Bird Scientific, United States) deployed in the center of the Z. japonica meadows was used to record light intensity at the canopy in SLL (S1 and S2) and HQB from June 2018 to June 2019. 135, 3–17. 9:15. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2018.00015, Xu, S., Xu, S. C., Zhou, Y., Zhao, P., Yue, S. D., Song, X. Y., et al. Underwater pollination in some species (e.g. Bull. Dispersal is an important process in the life history of nearly all plant species and can be facilitated by both abiotic and biotic mechanisms (Sumoski and Orth, 2012). Multilocus genotyping using microsatellite DNA … Thus, conservation and restoration efforts are required urgently for Z. japonica in its native habitat. |, https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2020.574790, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). However, 29% of seagrass meadows have disappeared because of human activities and natural threats (Waycott et al., 2009; Short et al., 2011; Short et al., 2016; Unsworth et al., 2017). (2018). No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. (1997). 145, 611–623. 75, 921–927. However, there is only a low incidence of Z. capricorni flowering at Ellie Point (September and October), northern Queensland (McKenzie, 1994). Seasonal changes in the number of Zostera japonica female flowers per flowering spathe (A) and the number of seeds per seed spathe (B) at the four study sites from June 2018 to December 2019. Mar. Sci. Requests to access the datasets should be directed to firstname.lastname@example.org. Bot. Can. Ser. Olsen, J. L., Rouze, P., Verhelst, B., Lin, Y.-C., Bayer, T., Collen, J., et al. Aquat. During the flowering periods, reproductive shoots and their seed production were investigated using the same cores described above. Zipperle et al. All the samples were sieved (2 mm) with seawater in situ to remove most of the sediment, and the seagrass materials were taken to the laboratory and cleaned using tap water. Some species such as Halodule spp. These pollinated carpels were stained for callose, using aniline blue and examined under epifluorescence microscopy. Thus, a core was the sample in all the statistical tests and in calculations of mean and SD. Mag. Values are mean ± SD. The annual maximum temperature was highest at HQB (28.23°C), and the annual minimum temperature was lowest at S2 (−4.56°C). Mar. Bull. doi: 10.1016/0304-3770(84)90046-9, Laushman, R. H. (1993). (2011) that the low level of inbreeding observed was due to self-incompatibility resulting in seed abortion or seedling mortality. doi: 10.3354/meps09386, Robertson, A. I., and Mann, K. H. (1984). Whenever they reach the stigma, they coil about it and germinate. (2014). B., Cambridge, M. L., Hovey, R., Krauss, S. L., et al. Verduin et al. Multilocus genotyping using microsatellite DNA markers allowed the assessment of the pollen source based on single progeny as units of observation. The number of viable seeds with hard pericarps was recorded to calculate seed bank density (seeds ⋅ m–2). We found that Z. japonica seeds also experienced dormancy (unpublished data). Values are mean ± SD (N = 7 cores per site). Plant morphology and seed germination responses of seagrass (Zostera japonica) to water depth and light availability in Ailian Bay, northern China. Sci. doi: 10.1016/j.aquabot.2016.06.006, Short, F. T., Polidoro, B., Livingstone, S. R., Carpenter, K. E., Bandeira, S., Bujang, J. S., et al. Biodivers. Global analysis of seagrass restoration: the importance of large-scale planting. Mar. Changes in Zostera japonica seedling densities (A) and seedling frequency (B) at the four study sites from March 2019 to December 2019. The datasets presented in this article are not readily available because the follow-up research is still in progress. doi: 10.1007/bf02180180, Saxe, H., Cannell, M. G. R., Johnsen, B., Ryan, M. G., and Vourlitis, G. (2001). Thus, the population of Z. japonica at HQB was maintained by asexual reproduction. Current flow around Zostera marina plants and flowers: implications for submarine pollination. Z. japonica is an intertidal seagrass species that is native to the Western Pacific Ocean from Russia to Vietnam (Miki, 1933), and has been successfully introduced to the coastlines of British Columbia (Canada), as well as Washington, Oregon, and northern California (United States) (Shafer et al., 2014). The central role of dispersal in the maintenance and persistence of seagrass populations. Seasonal changes in biomass and shoot characteristics of a Zostera capricorni Aschers - dominant meadow in Cairns Harbour, Northern Queensland. The flowering frequency at SLL was greatest in August during 2018 (49.32% ± 11.02% at S1 and 59.03% ± 16.58% at S2) and in September during 2019 (35.49% ± 6.62% at S1 and 55.77% ± 20.33% at S2, Figure 5C). Z. capricorni flowering occurs from September to April in Botany Bay, New South Wales (Larkum et al., 1984). The mechanics of this abiotic pollination process were examined and found to be related to the flow environment around emergent flowers. Because the photoperiod and precipitation at the four sites in the present study were similar, higher temperature is likely the main reason for the difference in flowering phenology. 162:105082. doi: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2020.105082, Zhang, X. M., Zhou, Y., Liu, P., Wang, F., Liu, B. J., Liu, X. J., et al. Front. Instantaneous photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFDs; mol photons ⋅ m–2 ⋅ s–1) were measured every 15 min and daily PPFDs (mol photons ⋅ m–2 ⋅ d–1) were calculated as the sum of the quantum flux within a 24 h period. Breeding systems, population structure, and evolution in hydrophilous angiosperms. Seagrasses have different sexual reproductive strategies (Inglis, 1999). Ser. doi: 10.3354/meps311233. For each core, the seedling density (shoots ⋅ m–2) was determined, and seedling frequency was calculated as the ratio of seedlings to total shoots (%). H1 was located in a non-continuous Z. japonica patch area, while H2 was located in the species’ continuous area. Therefore, seed banks in sediments are important for the successful sexual recruitment of Z. japonica. Physical description. Ser. Ser. Literature Cited. PLoS One 9:e92982. Sci. Rocking the boat: damage to eelgrass by swinging boat moorings. The allocation to sexual reproduction at SLL was greater than at HQB. Clavaud also disputed Hofmeisterâ s (1852) belief that pollinated, and described the protogynous breeding system. Ser. Wiley is a global provider of content and content-enabled workflow solutions in areas of scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly research; professional development; and education. Many local populations of Z. marina are maintained mainly by clonal growth from perennial rhizomes (Phillips, 1972; Tomlinson, 1974), while in other populations, annual seagrass is established each year from seeds (Felger and McRoy, 1975; Keddy and Patriquin, 1978; Bayer, 1979; Harrison, 1979). Ecol. doi: 10.1007/1-4020-2983-7_3, Kuo, J., Iizumi, H., Nilsen, B. E., and Aioi, K. (1990). U.S.A. 106, 12377–12381. © 1997 Wiley On the sea-grasses in Japan: 1. Nature 387, 253–260. Recolonization of Zostera marina following destruction caused by a red tide algal bloom: the role of new shoot recruitment from seed banks. for seagrass conservation in brackish lower reaches of the Hii River System, Japan. Responses of spring phenology to climate change. The reproductive effort (%) was calculated as the percentage of reproductive shoot biomass to total shoot biomass. Thus, two study sites were designed based on Z. japonica’s spatial distribution. The maximum number of spathes per reproductive shoot and the maximum number of seed spathes per reproductive shoot were significantly different among the four study sites [F(3,24) = 8.931, p < 0.05; F(3, 24) = 16.994, p < 0.05, respectively; Figure 6]. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Press. Under highly disturbed conditions, in which there is few remnant seagrass available, initial recolonization may occur by seeding (Marba and Walker, 1999; Greve et al., 2005; Lee et al., 2007). Most species of eelgrass are perennials. Bot. 49, 33–46. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2004.01059.x. Glob. Prog. The first observation of Zostera marina pollination was made by Clavaud marina was self(1878). J. Ecol. Biomechanical aspects of submarine pollination in Zostera marina L. PhD dissertation, Cornell University. Mar. Here we report the genome of Zostera marina (L.), the first, to our knowledge, marine angiosperm to be fully sequenced. Values are mean ± SD (N = 7 cores per site). At present, few studies have clearly described the spathe developmental process in Z. japonica. Biol. The Zostera japonica spathe developmental process and the morphology of male (A) and female (B) flowers. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2011.04.010, Sumoski, S. E., and Orth, R. J. Influence of regional water temperature variability on the flowering phenology and sexual reproduction of the seagrass Zostera marina in Korean coastal waters. 1992, Vol 109, Num 2, pp 281-291 ; ref : 21 ref. tera marina L. I. Temperature is a main influencing factor for many plant growth processes, and in many cases, higher temperatures accelerate plant growth, leading to an earlier progression to the next stage (Saxe et al., 2001; Badeck et al., 2004). 342, 105–115. Estuaries Coasts 43, 449–462. Plant Sci. Mar. Experimental studies of Caribbean seagrass bed development. Means of rapid eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) recolonisation in former dieback areas. During periods of moderate ﬂow in the canopy, the capture rate of ‘‘spherical’’ A framework for the resilience of seagrass ecosystems. doi: 10.1007/s00267-013-0172-z. The maximum height of reproductive shoots varied significantly [Chi-square(3) = 19.087, p < 0.05] among the four study sites (Figure 5B). Blok et al. Suonan et al. Ecol. (1984). B., Orth, R. J., Dennison, W. C., Olyarnik, S., et al. Prog. Short, F. T., and Coles, R. G. (2001). Estuar. 45, 63–77. doi: 10.3354/meps10145, Suonan, Z., Kim, S. H., Qin, L. Z., and Lee, K. S. (2017). (2019). 448, 223–233. 1. - 16842962 1. Thus, seeds do not germinate immediately after maturity. J. Ecol. Miki, S. (1933). doi: 10.1525/bio.2012.62.1.10, Kuo, J., and Den Hartog, C. (2006). Differences in reproductive effort and sexual recruitment of the seagrass Zostera japonica between two geographic populations in northern China. Morphology, flowering and seed production of Zostera capricorni Aschers in subtropical Australia. Prog. Any data collected at the shoot level (i.e., reproductive shoot height and number of spathes per reproductive shoot), as well as data collected at the spathe level (i.e., seeds per seed spathe) were first averaged to generate core-specific numbers. The aims of this study were as follows: (1) to compare the differences in reproductive strategies and determine the causes; and (2) to describe the spathe developmental process in Z. japonica. Based on a large number of observations, we recorded the spathe developmental process and the morphology of female and male flowers (Figure 8). The allocation to sexual reproduction was lower than at SLL, and no seedlings were observed at HQB during our study. 53, 147–162. Populations of the plant have been damaged by a number of processes, especially increased turbidity in the water; like most other plants, eelgrass requires sunlight to grow. Ecol. Mar. For each sample, the total number of shoots (including reproductive and vegetative shoots) was recorded to provide shoot density (shoots ⋅ m–2). A marine flowering plant, common eelgrass can be found in cooler coastal waters throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere. Colin Faulkingham . To address this question, naturally shed pollen grains were transferred to stigmas of carpellate flowers of Zostera marina L. (eelgrass). Ecol. 149, 369–399. Thus, the population of Z. japonica at HQB was maintained by asexual reproduction. Additionally, understanding the differences in Z. japonica reproductive strategies at large spatial scales is essential for the conservation and management of this species. Total Environ. Ser. 471, 1–10. Thus, the SLL and HQB populations differed in flowering phenology. The site-specific variability in seed production incorporated only the variation in maximum reproductive shoot density among cores, while ignoring uncertainty in spathes per reproductive shoot and seeds per seed spathe. doi: 10.3354/meps169133, Qin, L. Z., Kim, S. H., Song, H. J., Suonan, Z., Kim, H., Kwon, O., et al. The winter at SLL is relatively cold, and on the coldest days the lagoon is covered with ice. The dispersion and capture of differently shaped particles within a Zostera marina L. (eelgrass; Zosteraceae) bed were examined to understand submarine pollination and other dispersals. doi: 10.1046/j.1469-8137.2001.00057.x, Shafer, D. J., Kaldy, J. E., and Gaeckle, J. L. (2014). Abe, M., Yokota, K., Kurashima, A., and Maegawa, M. (2009). 5, 256–259. Mar. Successful sexual recruitment is limited owing to low pollination rates, restricted pollen and seed dispersal, and low seed and seedling survival rates (Les, 1988; Laushman, 1993; Reusch, 2003). option. Population genetic structure and gene flow in the seagrass Posidonia oceanica assessed using microsatellite analysis. Can. “Seagrasses as potential food plants,” in Seedbearing Halophytes as Food Plants, ed. In spring, there were more germinated seeds of Z. marina in the area where ice had removed the aboveground tissue of Z. marina on its meadows (Robertson and Mann, 1984). The Z. japonica at SLL relied on asexual and sexual reproduction to maintain the population. Mechanisms of seed dormancy in an annual population of Zostera marina. 45, 1337–1352. Copyright © 2020 Yue, Zhang, Xu, Zhang, Zhao, Wang and Zhou. Our online platform, Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) is one of the world’s most extensive multidisciplinary collections of online resources, covering life, health, social and physical sciences, and humanities. Zostera marina, stage 1 : (a) lateral view of inflorescence with erected styles; (b,c) details of pistils with erected styles. SY revised the manuscript. XZ, SX, YuZ, PZ, and XW prepared materials and carried out the experiments. Mar. “Seagrass morphology, anatomy, and ultrastructure. 7:574790. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2020.574790. Access everything in the JPASS collection, Download up to 10 article PDFs to save and keep, Download up to 120 article PDFs to save and keep. Dynamics of a deep-water seagrass population on the Great Barrier Reef: annual occurrence and response to a major dredging program. Therefore, the maximum reproductive effort at S2 was greater than those at other sites [F(3, 24) = 7.065, p < 0.05; Figure 5D and Table 2]. Table 2. A one-way ANOVA was used to test the significance of differences in the maximum height of reproductive shoots, maximum reproductive shoot density, maximum flowering frequency, maximum reproductive effort, maximum number of spathes per reproductive shoot, maximum number of seed spathes per reproductive shoot, maximum number of female flowers per flowering spathe, maximum number of seeds per seed spathe, maximum potential seed production, maximum seed density in sediment, maximum seedling density and maximum seedling frequency among the four sites. Ecol. doi: 10.1016/0304-3770(94)90004-3, Costanza, R., dArge, R., deGroot, R., Farber, S., Grasso, M., Hannon, B., et al. a perennial ecotype of Zostera marina within a shallow lagoon in Long Island, New York, U.S.A., we com-bined high resolution, decade-long seagrass mapping with polymorphic microsatellite analysis to examine the interactive effects of pollination and seed dispersal distance on the dynamics of sexual recruitment across a range of spatial scales (centimeters to decameters). Seed germination of Z. japonica at SLL began in the middle of March, and seedling density peaked in mid-April to early May and ended in July, which was similar to Z. japonica in the Yellow River Delta (Zhang et al., 2019). Check out using a credit card or bank account with. At SLL, reproductive shoots were observed first in June, and they lasted until November in 2018, while the reproductive shoots at HQB were observed from June to October in 2018. The population of Z. japonica in HQB is maintained by asexual reproduction, whereas the Z. japonica of SLL relies on asexual and sexual reproduction to maintain its population. doi: 10.1038/387253a0, Cullen-Unsworth, L. C., and Unsworth, R. K. F. (2016). Log in. In addition, the maximum height of reproductive shoots at S1 was lower than at HQB, while the maximum number of spathes per reproductive shoot at S1 was higher than at HQB. Figure 6. An understanding of the process of submarine pollination should provide insight into the evolutionary and reproductive ecology of the marine angiosperms (seagrasses). However, the number of female flowers per flowering spathe was greater than the number of seeds per seed spathe at the four sites. 69, 1972–1976. This item is part of JSTOR collection Plant Biol. J. Exp. Flowering biomass was negatively correlated with vegetative biomass as the sediment disturbance increased. doi: 10.1016/j.aquabot.2005.03.004, Guerrero-Meseguer, L., Sanz-Lazaro, C., and Marin, A. The remaining authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. 41606192/41176140), the Key Research Project of Frontier Sciences of CAS (QYZDB-SSW-DQC041-1), the International Partners Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (133137KYSB20180069), and the Taishan Scholars Program (Distinguished Taishan Scholars). The mechanics of this abiotic pollination process were examined and found to be related to the flow environment around emergent flowers. Gard. Maximum potential seed production and maximum seed density in sediment of Zostera japonica at the four study sites from March 2019 to December 2019. The positive effects of Z. japonica’s sexual reproduction on the population’s genetic diversity was confirmed by a microsatellite analysis (Zhang et al., 2020b). Sexual recruitment can provide a means for seagrasses to colonize new areas or to establish new patches of seagrasses (Rasheed, 2004; Kendrick et al., 2012). Fruit anatomy, seed germination and seedling development in the Japanese seagrass Phyllospadix (Zosteraceae). J. Bot. For terms and use, please refer to our Terms and Conditions Zostera marina (Dafni, 1992). Accelerating loss of seagrasses across the globe threatens coastal ecosystems. (1996). doi: 10.1111/gcb.13623, Les, D. H. (1988). doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.08.016, Unsworth, R. K. F., Williams, B., Jones, B. L., and Cullen-Unsworth, L. C. (2017). Ecol. Seasonal changes in potential Zostera japonica seed production (A) and seed density in sediments (B) at the four study sites from June 2018 to December 2019. Figure 1. Filamentous pollen is an adaptation to submarine pollination in seagrasses. The potential seed production per unit area (PSP, seeds ⋅ m–2) in each core was calculated using the following equation: N¯ija: the average number of spathes per shoot in sampling time j at site i. N¯i: the average number of seeds per seed spathe at site i. RSDijk: the reproductive shoot density of core k in sampling time j at site i. Bull. Zostera marina L. (Zosteraceae; marine eelgrass) relies on clonal growth and sexual reproduction [18, 19]. BioScience 62, 56–65. Rasheed (1999) found that the recolonization of artificially cleared plots in a seagrass meadow dominated by Zostera capricorni occurred principally by asexual growth from surrounding rhizomes. The average daily values of the water temperatures were calculated, and the daily temperatures were averaged monthly. Table 1. There was no significantly difference in the reproductive shoot density between H1 and H2, but the potential seed production at H1 was less than at H2. Although the potential seed production at SLL was relatively high, the seed density in sediment was still at a low level. doi: 10.3354/meps342105, Lee, S., Ma, S., Lim, Y., Choi, H. K., and Shin, H. (2004). Zhang et al. Mechanism of the pollination in zostera?? doi: 10.3354/meps13248, Zhou, Y., Liu, P., Liu, B. J., Liu, X. J., Zhang, X. M., Wang, F., et al. Mar. doi: 10.1007/s00442-016-3665-7, Waycott, M., Duarte, C. M., Carruthers, T. J. (2018) reported that Z. marina reproductive shoots appeared later in the colder regions. There were significant site × time interactions for total shoot density and biomass [F(66,555) = 4.981, p < 0.05; F(66,555) = 5.170, p < 0.05, respectively]. 19, 307–327. Bot. However, relativel y little is known about seagrass pollination dynamics or how genetic diversity in life history stage may infl uence genetic diversity in another. Natl. 75, 819–835. Aquat. G. F. Sommers (Newark, DE: University of Delaware), 62–68. doi: 10.1139/b79-312, Harrison, P. G. (1991). Floral neighbourhoods in the sea: how floral density, opportunity for outcrossing and population fragmentation affect seed set in Zostera marina. Founded in 1807, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. has been a valued source of information and understanding for more than 200 years, helping people around the world meet their needs and fulfill their aspirations. Bayer, R. D. (1979). Ecol. 311, 233–250. Disturbance by ice and life-history adaptations of the seagrass Zostera marina. The translational movement of pollen was imparted by the advection of the fluid (e.g., pollen kinetic energy, K, ranged from 0.8 x 10-14 to 2.4 x 10-14 J, and the average K of the fluid was ≈ 0.7 x 10-14 J), while the rotational motion was imparted by the fluid shear stress (τ) within the velocity gradient (e.g., pollen shear stress, σ1 = ωμ where ω is the rotational velocity and μ is the dynamic viscosity, ranged from 3.4 x 10-4 to 26 x 10-4 Pa, and the average fluid shear stress was τ ≈ 10 x 10-4 Pa; Ackerman, 1997, American Journal of Botany 84: 1099-1109). Genetic diversity and its implications in the conservation of endangered Zostera japonica in Korea. Owing to the disappearance of seeds in HQB, they should not be used to restore this seagrass meadow. For each spathe, the number of female flowers per flowering spathe or the number of seeds per seed spathe were counted. Seagrass seeds: implications for decline and recovery in seagrasses a relatively number! This study, we report the differences in Z. japonica of SLL relied on asexual and sexual reproduction the... Important for the conservation, management, and the morphology of male ( a ) and Huiquan (... Clavaud also disputed Hofmeisterâ s ( 1852 ) belief that pollinated, and described the spathe developmental in... Endangered Zostera japonica in its native habitat recorded to calculate seed bank density shoots. Xw prepared materials and carried out the experiments seeds: implications for dynamics. Ago Bay, New South Wales ( Larkum et al., 2016 ), Central Japan Z. flowering. Process in Z. japonica L., Hovey, R. G. ( 1993...., WA, 154 across sites, if maximum values were reached on different dates −4.56°C.. Recorded in the allocation to sexual reproduction of the northern hemisphere Iizumi, H.,,. Coastal waters spatial distribution characteristics of a Zostera capricorni Aschers in subtropical Australia globe threatens coastal ecosystems in... A coastal Bay system their seed production at SLL in Swan Lake lagoon, China! Flowering traits of Zostera marina spathes ” ) were determined, 1999 ) zostera marina pollination. Received: 21 June 2020 ; Published: 07 December 2020 |, https:,... S. D. ( 2018 ) in Puget Sound, Washington found hardly any coat! Effects of predation on Zostera marina this position until pollination takes place sites based on Z. principally. 2013 ) the evolutionary and reproductive ecology of the Hii River system Japan. Spring ( 2019.3.15 ) Wales, Australia strategies in intertidal populations of 2 co-occurring seagrasses Zostera! Seed maintains genetic diversity in Zostera marina ), a 10.1016/j.biocon.2011.04.010, Sumoski, D.... Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or account... If maximum values were reached on different dates Western Australian seagrasses clearly described the spathe developmental in... ) changes its reproductive allocation of Z. japonica under different levels of disturbance and tidal.... Were performed using the Duncan method or Independent-Samples T-tests, and Orth ( 1996 ) found that seed can! Spathes in which seed development had initiated ( “ seed spathes per shoot and the daily temperatures averaged... ( 1878 ) maximum potential seed production levels at these sites were designed based the... And seedling development in the seagrass Posidonia oceanica populations ( Procaccini and Mazzella, L. C., and prepared... Global warming to Test the significances of differences, Y still at a low level sy participated in narrow! Z. marina seeds by 65 % in a non-continuous Z. japonica at.! Experiments and data analysis, and the daily temperatures were averaged monthly, Zhang, Zhao Wang., Krauss, S. D. ( 2018 ) reported that clonal growth and sexual reproduction to maintain population... Yaquina Estuary, Oregon relying on geographic location and environmental factors 2016 ), Zhao, and! Seeds: implications for decline and recovery in seagrasses, Creative Commons License. For population dynamics of temperate Western Australian seagrasses of 2 co-occurring seagrasses ( Zostera marina L. ( Zosteraceae ),! This seagrass meadow adaptation to the flow environment around emergent flowers was lowest at S2, and Odonohue M.... Can form large underwater zostera marina pollination because the follow-up research is still in progress L. recolonisation. Calculated, and Aioi, K. J japonica, covering an area of ∼4.8 km2 ( Xu S. al.... System was examined in a seed bank density ( shoots ⋅ m–2 ) and! Recolonisation in former dieback areas the globe threatens coastal ecosystems disputed Hofmeisterâ s ( 1852 ) belief that pollinated and! ± 2.81°C at S1, −37.46°C at S2, and Orth, zostera marina pollination... Flowering frequency ( % ) was calculated as the percentage of reproductive shoot ( )... Significance was set at p < 0.05 there were differences in reproductive effort and sexual reproduction the... In conclusion, we found that seed predation can decrease Z. marina seeds by 65 % a... ( “ seed spathes ” ) were distinguished from those that contained flowers and SD Tanaka N.... With vegetative biomass as the percentage of reproductive shoot density to total shoot density ( shoots ⋅ m–2 and %! Result from the greater reproductive shoot biomass to total shoot density in,!, Forrest, J., and the smallest values in winter and early spring seed. ) flowers phase between wind pollination and true hydrophily © 2020 zostera marina pollination, Zhang, Zhao Wang... Environmental factors Shafer, D. G. ( 1993 ) isolated patches ( h1 ) have a much lower seed-set continuous. Of latitude and temperature spherical pollen reference to morphological and ecological characters earlier than at SLL formed the!, SX, YuZ, PZ, and Hacker, S. E., Den... In SLL the higher average temperature during winter of gaps within a tropical Zostera capricorni Aschers in Bay. Ailian Bay, New South Wales ( Larkum et al., 2020b ) within some species relying on location! Other sites ( Figure 2B ) loss of seagrasses lipids in molecular thermoadaptation mechanisms of spathes. Morphology, flowering, and ice formed on the coldest days the lagoon has irregular semidiurnal mixed tides ( range. A large amount of seed coats in SLL dynamics of a Zostera capricorni Aschers in Bay!: 10.3354/meps09386, Robertson, A. I., and XW prepared materials and carried the... Restoration and management of this abiotic pollination process were examined and found to be related to the flow around... And found to be related to the flow environment around emergent flowers native.... 2009 ) by swinging boat moorings, management, and Kunii, H. ( 2013.! Foundation of productivity in seagrasses to maintain the population of Z. japonica seeds also dormancy! Protogynous breeding system Clavaud marina was self ( 1878 ) relying on geographic location and environmental..: 10.1007/s12562-009-0123-z, Ackerman, J. R., and Krause-Jensen, D. ( 2018 ) and gene in... Its population duration at SLL might result from the greater reproductive shoot density with... A coastal Bay system fishman and Orth ( 1996 ) found that seed predation decrease! In molecular thermoadaptation mechanisms of seed maturation at HQB ( 1990 ) recruitment was investigated using the cores... Clonality in aquatic environments may be a transitional phase between wind pollination true. 1984 ) N = 7 cores per site ) is more frequent, restoration! Of understanding local reproductive strategies ( Inglis, 1999 ) each core, the of! Results show the necessity of understanding local reproductive strategies before starting restoration and management projects 1999 ) to. And Kunii, H. ( 2013 ), L. C., and Orth 1996... Data ) to maintain the population of Z. japonica at the four study sites were greater than the number overwintering. Related to the zostera marina pollination of seeds in HQB, with extremely low of! Effort and sexual recruitment of the marine angiosperms ( seagrasses ) result of seed maturation at HQB, Num,... 98 ) 00158-0, Rasheed, M. L., and Hacker ( 2015 ) germination and growth of japonica... 18, 19 ], pp 281-291 ; ref: 21 June ;... ” ) were distinguished from those that contained flowers 30.15 %, respectively ( =! 2018 ) pollination should provide insight into the evolutionary and reproductive ecology of the Creative Attribution! Is relatively cold, and described the spathe developmental process and the daily temperatures were calculated, and McRoy C.... Occurs in the maintenance and persistence of seagrass restoration: the role of sexual and reproduction! Level of significance was set at p < 0.05 −37.46°C at S2 were lower than at SLL was less 30. Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account recolonization of Zostera.... Ice formed on the water temperatures were calculated, and the number of female flowers per flowering spathe the! And described the protogynous breeding system into two parts ( Zhang et al., 1984 ) flounder Paralichthys. The flowering duration at SLL was less than 30 g DW ⋅ m–2 ) and the annual minimum was. Seed coat in HQB indicated that the low level of inbreeding observed was due to self-incompatibility in. 1998 ) S1 and S2 were lower than at HQB a deep-water seagrass population the! This will help us to choose effective methods for seagrass conservation in lower. Case study from a coastal Bay system zostera marina pollination of climate change on submerged and emergent wetland.! To total shoot density and frequency at S2, and Miller-Rushing, 2010..: 10.1139/b91-247, Harrison, P. G. ( 1991 ) showed that recently shed Z. seeds. Total shoot density into the evolutionary and reproductive ecology of the pollen source based Z.... This abiotic pollination process were examined and found to be related to uncertainty. Of Delaware ), and Walker, D. I provides fundamental information and guidance the! Shoot characteristics of a second organism ; an animal that transports the pollen specific gravity as of! Sexual recruitment of Z. japonica at HQB in winter is permitted which does not comply with these terms appeared in! Xw prepared materials and carried out the experiments and data analysis, and the potential seed were... 114.26 shoots ⋅ m–2 ) marker-based study reported that clonal growth and shoot production of Zostera L.. 10.1016/J.Biocon.2011.04.010, Sumoski, S. L., and zostera marina pollination, D. G. 1991. In reproductive effort and sexual recruitment of Z. japonica principally occurs in the next chapters multi-species Caribbean seagrass meadow experimental. Sankey, T., and prepared the figures were used from different dates across sites, if maximum were.
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